- RSS Channel Showcase 2688052
- RSS Channel Showcase 3334972
- RSS Channel Showcase 5832200
- RSS Channel Showcase 3932237
Can perceptual averaging really occur in the absence of change localization?
Noticing the location of an object that causes a change to the mean of a set relies on the ability to determine the mean of the set, and detect that a change has occurred (Rensink, 2002). Previous research suggests that people are able to retain information about the mean emotion of a set of faces even when they are unsure which items changed between the two sets (Haberman & Whitney, 2011). Subjects in that study, however, could use a strategy of localizing the most emotionally extreme face in the set to reliably determine the correct response in the mean discrimination task. In the present study, the utility of this strategy was eliminated. Subjects completed 4 blocks of trials consisting of 48 trials per block. On each trial, subjects viewed two consecutive displays of faces contained within circles. Four items increased (or decreased) in size or emotional intensity. In Experiment 1, subjects first determined whether average size or emotion increased or decreased from the first display to the second, then localized one of the four changed items. In Experiment 2, the order of responding was reversed. The results suggest that when performing both a mean discrimination and localization task, subjects use their knowledge of which stimulus in the set changed to guide their response on the mean discrimination task. Focusing attention to a local region of a display prevents the global distribution of attention necessary for perceptual averaging (Chong & Treisman, 2003). Thus, averaging is not possible when change detection fails.
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Psychology, University of Regina. 23 p.
Parenting and practical wisdom: moral decision-making in disciplinary practice
Aristotle (2004) stated every art, activity, and science aims at some good outcome. In parenting, this manifests as a desire for one’s children to be good people and to grow into mature, responsible adults. Discipline has the potential to be either harmful or helpful, often requiring thoughtful consideration of multiple factors before determining an appropriate response. According to virtue theory, practical wisdom (phronesis) is a chain of reasoning by which people determine how best to act (Fowers, 2005). The present study examined parental responses to child misbehaviour. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four parents recruited from the community, wherein they described how they handled specific instances of child misbehaviour. Thematic analysis – as recommended by Braun and Clarke (2006) – was used to analyze the collected data. Five themes consistent with existing literature on eudaimonic psychological theory and phronetic reasoning were identified (Moral Perception, Deliberation, Reasoned Choice, Learning from Upbringing, and Parental Duty). The immediate concern of future research is to conduct further interviews to reach theoretical saturation. However, these findings give cause for optimism regarding future research on practical wisdom in parental practice and could potentially generate multiple avenues for future investigation. At present, the themes identified in the present study are glimpses of the relevancy practical wisdom and eudaimonic theory may have in understanding the flourishing family unit.
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Psychology, University of Regina. iv, 58 p.
Effects of motor involvement on memory performance for pictorial and 3D objects
Recent research indicates that memory for real objects is superior to memory for matched pictures (Snow, Skiba, Coleman, & Berryhill, 2014). Although there are several possible explanations for this memory difference, this study was specifically interested in assessing the role of motor involvement. Since real objects offer affordances for action, they may unconsciously engage the motor system when they are viewed. If the motor involvement explanation is correct, I hypothesized that fully engaging the motor system by having individuals interact with the objects should further enhance memory for objects but not for pictures. The study used a 2 (stimuli: object vs picture) x 2 (task: motor vs non-motor) between-subjects design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to each of the four conditions. Participants engaged in a simple judgment task which involved making a decision by grasping the stimuli (motor) or writing the decision on paper (non-motor). Following the task, recall and recognition scores were assessed. As hypothesized, recall for objects was further enhanced in the motor condition relative to the non-motor condition, and no such improvements were found across the picture conditions. The results of this study suggest that motor system involvement facilitates enhanced memory for objects.
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Psychology, University of Regina. 21 p.